On the vast majority of exoplanets, a person would not survive for three seconds - through cold, heat or heavy sandstorms. An overview of five of the most hostile.
Like the earth, they revolve around a star, but the similarities kind of stop there.
Astronomers are finding more and more planets that revolve around stars other than the sun, so-called exoplanets. Some resemble the earth, but the vast majority are totally unsuitable for humans.
Below we provide an overview of five of the worst places to be human.
HD189733 b - Hot sand suffocates everything© NASA
At around 63 light-years away, this blue planet revolves around an orange dwarf. But unlike Earth, which is blue due to the way water breaks the light, the cause of HD189733 b blue is a lot more hostile.
The color is caused by the high content of magnesium silicate in the atmosphere. This substance is, for example, in talcum powder. Add to that a storm raging on the surface with gusts of wind up to 9700 km / h and an average temperature of 800 ° C, and you get a planet where glowing hot sand rages over the surface and suffocates everything in its path.
Beta Pictoris b - Comets bring poison gas© NASA
This so-called super-Jupiter has a mass that is seven times as large as that of Jupiter, and its radius is 65 percent greater than that of the largest planet in our solar system. The enormous planet has swallowed a large comet swarm by gravity, which has enveloped it in 200 million billion tons of carbon monoxide, a substance very toxic to humans.
The star around which the planet revolves, however, splits all these carbon monoxide atoms with its ultraviolet radiation within 100 years, but the carbon monoxide cloud is fairly stable. That is why astronomers think that the planet is constantly attracting new comets. About once every five minutes, the planet swallows a large comet. This keeps the gas cloud up to standard.
PSR B1257 + 12 b, c og d - A cosmic graveyard© NASA
These three exoplanets are in the same system and orbit around the same star. They are some of the first exoplanets that were discovered - and also some of the weirdest ones. Their solar system is mainly reminiscent of a cemetery.
The system once ran like a charm, but at some point the star exploded into a supernova and killed everything in its path. The star is now a pulsar, a very small star with a large mass that orbits its own axis within 6.22 milliseconds.
Because of this super-fast rotation, the star emits a powerful radiation that ensures that there will never be life on the planets, neither now nor in the future.
HD 209458 b - Boiling atmosphere© NASA
This exoplanet has a few properties in common with the earth: its atmosphere contains water, methane and carbon dioxide. These gases are important components of life. However, the planet is anything but habitable.
The gas giant is so close to its star that it is around 1000 ° C on the surface. This causes the atmosphere to boil and the planet pulls a 200,000-kilometer tail of evaporated gas behind it.
OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb - No jacket is thick enough© NASA
NASA scientists call this planet also Hoth, after the ice planet Star Wars. And not without reason: it is the coldest exoplanet that has been discovered so far.
OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb revolves around a red dwarf, but is at a great distance from its star. This results in a surface temperature of -220 ° C - only 50 ° C above absolute zero. Even if you put on the thickest winter coat you can find, you'll freeze to death in no time.