In the South Atlantic, nearly 2,000 kilometers southwest of South Africa, a research team from Scripps Institution of Oceanography has mapped a mountain range that we have only known from satellite photos - and whose highest mountain rises 4500 meters from the seabed.
The creature that comes down in the evening of May 26, 1953, looks like the terrible snowman. And a few meters behind him another snowy figure appears. They are both covered with ice from head to toe and walk with stiff, clumsy movements. With a gigantic backpack on their backs, an oxygen mask over their face and white frozen hair, the men stagger silently toward Edmund Hillary and George Lowe who meet them from the camp.
1. This is how altitude sickness works At height, the body fails. Without oxygen, the brain, muscles and tissues don't work. If the oxygen level falls, the body therefore starts a number of defense mechanisms, which in the long term are fatal. Lungs expand If the body experiences that it receives less oxygen, the lungs expand and the heart starts pumping more blood from which the body can still extract oxygen ... Marrow forms blood The bone marrow produces more red blood cells, which supplies oxygen from the lungs. to all tissue.
In some countries avalanches are called 'the white death', and that's not for nothing. When such a sea of snow rushes down a mountainside, it takes everything along its way: stones, small trees - and people. An unfortunate skier trapped in an air bag in the hard compressed snow can only hope that help is coming.
Mount Roraima in Venezuela is the most famous example of a table mountain: a mountain with a flat top and vertical flanks. In the local language this type of mountain is called 'tepui', the home of the gods, of which Mount Roraima is by no means the only one. These and the other table mountains in the area are erosion residues, which means that they rise above the landscape because the material around them is eroded 400 meters perpendicularly down on all sides. The Roraima is the largest of its kind in South America with a top of 31 km2 and vertical flanks of 400 meters on all sides.
Most mountains were formed after the collision between two so-called tectonic plates. If both plates carry a continent, these continents are pushed up into long mountain ranges, because they are too light to sink into the deeper, heavier part of the earth. This is what you see in the Himalayas, the world's highest mountain range: the Indian subcontinent has been pushing against the Eurasian continent for the last 50 million years.